Underground Film Journal

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The Jonas Mekas Timeline: 1922 – 1974

Jonas Mekas holding a Bolex 16mm camera

Jonas Mekas (1924 – 2019) accomplished much in his long life. And that’s not just in the realm of underground film! Mekas practically lived a lifetime under Nazi rule before reluctantly coming to the United States in 1949.

At the Underground Film Journal, we love our timelines, so we’ve decided to maintain this list of important events in Mekas’s life whether it relates to his passion for the cinema or his personal achievements not related to film.

The plan is to update this timeline using multiple reference sources. Currently, we are using three.

One is a profile of Jonas written by Calvin Tomkins that was first printed in the January 6, 1973 issue of the New Yorker magazine; and reprinted in the book collection The Scene: Reports on Post-Modern Art.

Another source is the “Introduction” to the book of essays To Free the Cinema: Jonas Mekas & The New York Underground. The “Introduction” is written by David E. James, who also edited the book.

Lastly, the Journal is currently reading the book I Had Nowhere To Go, which publishes Jonas’s personal diary entries from 1944 to 1955; from which we adding information below as we go.

Below the timeline is a gallery of photographs used to illustrate Jonas’s chapter in The Scene.

The Journal cannot promise we’ll keep this timeline updated, but that’s currently the plan as, obviously, we’re fascinated by Mekas’s life.


Jonas Mekas is born in Semeniskiai, Lithuania.
The Scene, pg. 166

He is born on Christmas Eve.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 4


Age: 13
Jonas graduates from primary school and becomes an agricultural laborer.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 4


Age: 15
Jonas attempts to enter high school, but is too old for the beginning grades.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 4


Age: 17
Jonas gains admission to high school.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 5


Age: 19
Jonas graduates from the Gymnasium.
The Scene, pg. 166

Jonas works for a local newspaper; and contributes to an anti-Nazi underground paper.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 5


Age: 20
Jonas becomes an assistant editor of a literary weekly. (This may be the newspaper mentioned in To Free the Cinema above with an incorrect year here.)
The Scene, pg. 166


Age: 21
A pastor forges papers so Jonas and his brother Adolfas can travel to Vienna to avoid the Nazi occupation. That pastor was Jonas and Adolfas’s uncle — their mother’s brother — who gave his nephews the names of some contacts in Vienna who could lead them to safety in Switzerland.
The Scene, pg. 167
I Had Nowhere To Go, pg. 20

However, in July, their train is diverted and they end up in a prison camp at Elmshorn, a suburb of Hamburg, where they are forced to work in a German factory.
The Scene, pg. 167
I Had Nowhere To Go, pg. 23


Age: 22
After the German factory where they are working as forced laborers is closed down, Jonas and Adolfas, talk their way into being allowed to travel to find work on a German farm.
I Had Nowhere To Go, pg. 51

In May, as WWII is winding down, Jonas and Adolfas leave the farm where they have been working as slaves and end up in Camp M├╝rwick. This was what was known as a Displaced Person camp, for liberated people like Jonas and Adolfas who did not want to return to their home country, which was now under Soviet rule
I Had Nowhere To Go, pg. 68


Age: 25
A book of Jonas’s poems, Semeniskiy idiles (Idylls of Semeniskiai), and a book of his short stories are published.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 5


Age: 26
Jonas and Adolfas move to the Displaced Persons camp at Schwaebisch Gmuend.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 5

The Displaced Persons camps begin closing down; and the Mekas brothers reluctantly emigrate to the U.S. Their initial plans are to go to Chicago, but they stay in NYC upon arrival.
The Scene, pg. 168

Jonas and Adolfas arrive in New York City on October 29.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 4

On their third night in New York City, Jonas and Adolfas attend a screening of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and The Fall of the House of Usher, which was sponsored by the New York Film Society and programmed by Rudolph Arnheim.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 5


Age: 32
The first issue of Film Culture, edited and published by Jonas, appears in January.
The Scene, pg. 171
To Free The Cinema, pg. 7


Age: 35
In the fall, Jonas begins his weekly “Movie Journal” column in the Village Voice.
The Scene, pg. 172
To Free The Cinema, pg. 8


Age: 36
In a “Movie Journal” column on February 4, Mekas writes about “the conventional, dead, official cinema.”
To Free The Cinema, pg. 8


Age: 37
Jonas convinces the Village Voice to hire Andrew Sarris to review the commercial cinema releases.
The Scene, pg. 172

Jonas begins work on Guns of the Trees after buying some out-of-date film stock. To Free the Cinema notes that production began in the spring.
The Scene, pg. 173
To Free The Cinema, pg. 9


Age: 38
Jonas finishes editing Guns of the Trees.
The Scene, pg. 174

Cinema 16 screens Guns of the Trees.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 7

The First Statement of “The Group” formed by Jonas is published in Film Culture 22-23. Members of “The Group” include Lionel Rogosin, Peter Bogdanovich, Robert Frank, Alfred Leslie, Shirley Clarke, Gregory Markopoulos, Edward Bland, Ben Carruthers, Argus Speare Julliard, Emile de Antonio, Lewis Allen, Daniel Talbot, Walter Gutman and David Stone.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 9


Age: 39
Guns of the Trees wins first prize at the Second International Free Cinema Festival at Porretta, Terme, Italy.
The Scene, pg. 174
To Free The Cinema, pg. 9

The Film-Makers’ Cooperative is formally established in 1962, partly because Amos Vogel’s Cinema 16 refuses to distribute Stan Brakhage’s Anticipation of the Night. The Cooperative is located at 175 Lexington Avenue. To Free the Cinema describes this even as the Cooperative “comes into being” on January 18.
The Scene, pgs. 164, 174
To Free The Cinema, pg. 10


Age: 40
Jonas and Adolfas both work on Hallelujah the Hills through most of the year.
The Scene, pg. 176

Jonas’s screening series moves to the Gramercy Arts.
To Free The Cinema, pg. 10

In December; Jonas, P. Adams Sitney, and Barbara Rubin bring several American underground films to screen at the Third International Experimental Film Competition at Knokke-le-Zoute, Belgium, including Jack Smith’s Flaming Creatures, which causes a scandal when the judges refused to screen it publicly.
The Scene, pg. 178
To Free The Cinema, pg. 11


Age: 41
On February 15, police issue a summons to the owner of the Gramercy Arts Theatre due to Jonas screening there the “obscene” film Flaming Creatures. The theater abruptly cancels all underground film screenings. On March 3, Jonas again screens Flaming Creatures at the New Bowery Theatre on St. Mark’s Place where he and the entire audience is arrested. A week later, Jonas is arrested again for screening Jean Genet’s Un Chant d’Amour at the Writers’ Stage on East Fourth Street.
The Scene, pg. 179
To Free The Cinema, pg. 11

A few days before March 3, Jonas films a production of Kenneth Brown’s play The Brig by the Living Theatre.
The Scene, pg. 180

In July, Jonas acts as cameraman on Andy Warhol’s Empire.
The Scene, pg. 182

In November, Jonas starts the Film-Makers’ Cinematheque screening series at the New Yorker Theatre at Broadway and West Eighty-eighth Street. It moves a month later to the Maidman on West Forty-second Street. Then it moves to the City Hall Cinema at 170 Nassau Street; then to the Astor Place Playhouse on Lafayette Street; and then to the 41st Street Theatre near Sixth Avenue.
The Scene, pg. 183
To Free The Cinema, pg. 11


Age: 42
The Brig wins the Best Documentary Award at the Venice Film Festival.
The Scene, pg. 180


Age: 43
Jonas, Shirley Clarke, and Lionel Rogosin create the Film-Makers’ Distribution Center, which is set up to distribute underground films that may have breakthrough commercial success, such as Andy Warhol’s Chelsea Girls. The Distribution Center is a separate branch of the Film-Makers’ Cooperative.
The Scene, pgs. 185-186

In June, the Philadelphia College of Art honors Jonas for his “devotion, passion, and selfless dedication to the rediscovery of the newest art.”
The Scene, pg. 186


Age: 44
In the summer, Jonas and others transform the ground floor of 80 Wooster Street in NYC’s SoHo neighborhood into a small theater. The building had been purchased by Jonas’s Lithuanian artist friend George Maciunas with a $20,000 foundation grant as a place for low-cost housing for artists. This new Cinematheque opens in December. (To Free the Cinema places the opening in 1968; and writes that police harassment shuts it down almost immediately.)
The Scene, pg. 187
To Free The Cinema, pg. 12


Age: 45
Six months after the Cinematheque opens, it is forced to close down because Jonas could not get the proper licenses to run a theater at that location.
The Scene, pg. 188

Jonas, Jerome Hill, and Allan Masur establish the Film Art Fund for the purpose of creating the first ever film museum, to be called the Anthology Film Archives.
The Scene, pg. 189


Age: 46
Diaries, Notes, and Sketches is finished.
The Scene, pg. 161


Age: 47
Jonas voluntarily closes down the Film-Makers’ Distribution Center due to a city marshall threatening to shut down both the Distribution Center and the Cooperative to settle a judgement to a theater owner the organizations owed money to. Jonas assumes all of the Distribution Center’s debts to keep the Cooperative’s operations going.
The Scene, pg. 188

In December, the Anthology Film Archives opens within Joseph Papp’s Public Theatre on Lafayette St. in the old Astor Library building. (To Free the Cinema gives the specific date of December 1 of the Anthology opening.)
The Scene, pg. 189
To Free The Cinema, pg. 13


Age: 48
Jonas’s collected poems are published in Lithuania for the first time. The collection spans four volumes.
The Scene, pg. 193


Age: 49
Reminiscences of a Journey to Lithuania is shown at the New York Film Festival.
The Scene, pg. 164


Age: 51
The Anthology Film Archives relocates to 80 Wooster Street. To Free the Cinema notes that this happens after the death of the Anthology’s biggest sponsor, Jerome Hill.
The Scene, pg. 190
To Free The Cinema, pg. 13

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